THICKNESS OPTIMISATION

  • SECTION I°: normal asphalt (mix)

  • SECTION 2°: asphalt (mix) with a cover made up of a 5-cm. wear carpet, made with asphalt (mix) containing the anti-snow and anti-ice programme laid on the old normal asphalt (mix).

  • SECTION 3°: 25-cm. asphalt (mix), all containing the anti-snow and anti-ice programme. It is divided in three types of asphalt (mix): 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant.

  • SECTION 4°: 25-cm. asphalt (mix) like in section 3, plus a base divided in two parts of 15 cm. in total, all containing the anti-snow and anti-ice programme. It is divided in five types of asphalt (mix): 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant, as well as 7 cm. of base with crushed stone of 40 mm., besides another 8 cm. of base, equally with crushed stone of 40 mm., but with higher percentages in comparison to the upper 7 cm.

  • Section I°: normal asphalt (mix)


    1-A | Representation in vertical section of common asphalt (mix)
    Normal asphalt (mix) with 4/7 cm. of bottom in binder or tout-venant and 2/5 cm. of wear carpet.

    1-B | Representation in vertical section of common asphalt (mix) covered with snow
    Normal asphalt (mix) with 4/7 cm. of bottom in binder or tout-venant, and 2/5 cm. of wear carpet. All is covered with snow, that should be removed by snowplough, then it is necessary to intervene with a salt-spreading plough in order to avoid ice formation.

    1-C | Representation in vertical section of common asphalt (mix) with potholes on the surface
    Normal asphalt (mix) with 4/7 cm. of bottom or tout-venant and 2/5 cm. of wear carpet where, because of the freezing of the water infiltrated under the surface part, called crust, some potholes form that, in their turn, favour the formation of further infiltrations and relevant wider and deeper potholes, with considerable damages for the users’ safety.

    1-D | Representation in vertical section of common asphalt (mix) with potholes and cracks on the surface
    Normal asphalt (mix) with 4/7 cm. of bottom in binder or tout-venant and 2/5 cm. of wear carpet where, because of the freezing of the water infiltrated under the surface part, called crust, some potholes form that, in their turn, favour the formation of further infiltrations and relevant wider and deeper potholes, with considerable damages for the users’ safety. In addition, the frost in the ground below brought about some swellings, that cause a series of cracks in the asphalt (mix). This condition, along with the potholes, actually brings about the end of the life of that paving.
  • Section 2°: asphalt (mix) with cover made up of a 5-cm. wear carpet, made with the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-snow and anti-ice programme laid on the old normal asphalt (mix).


    2-A | Representation in vertical section of common asphalt (mix) with above a 5-cm. carpet made with asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme
    Normal asphalt (mix) with 4/7 cm. of bottom in binder or tout-venant and a 5-cm. wear carpet made with asphalt (mix) contaning the anti-ice and anti-snow programme.

    2-B | Representation in vertical section of common asphalt (mix) with above a 5-cm. carpet made with asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme. The whole has 4 cm. of snow covering only the ground beside, whereas only water remains on the asphalt (mix).
    Normal asphalt (mix) with 4/7 cm. of bottom in binder or tout-venant and 5 cm. of wear carpet made with asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme In case of snowfall, until about 4 cm., the snow does not remain on the asphalt (mix), but only on the ground beside the asphalt (mix)ed part. You don’t need a snowplough or a salt-spreading plough.

    2-C | Representation in vertical section of common asphalt (mix) with above 5 cm. of carpet made with asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme The whole with 15 cm. of snow covering for that measure only the ground beside, whereas a more limited amount of snow remains on the asphalt (mix), that is 7/11 cm., that will tend to melt, even if temperatures remain below 0° c.
    Normal asphalt (mix) with 4/7 cm. of bottom in binder or tout-venant and 5 cm. of wear carpet made with asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme In case of snowfall, until about 15 cm., the snow remaining on the asphalt (mix) can be of an amount that can vary from 7 to 11 cm. However, such snow will tend to melt, then to disappear, even if temperatures remain around - 3° c. A snowplough may be necessary, but not a salt-spreading plough.

    2-D | Representation in vertical section of common asphalt (mix) with above 5 cm. of carpet made with asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme. It indicates a condition at – 4° c. It represents in a vertical section the ground below that swells, therefore exerts an upward pressure. However, the surface asphalt (mix) does not break and makes the formation of cracks harder.
    Normal asphalt (mix) with 4/7 cm. of bottom in binder or tout-venant and 5 cm. of wear carpet made with asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme.
    In case of temperatures at - 4° c, the asphalt (mix) surface does not freeze. At the same time, no ice forms for a thickness below of about 8/10 cm. In this case, no superficial potholes form, because the water, although it impregnates the paving if infiltrated, does not freeze, therefore it does not swell. The asphalt (mix) remains elastic and absorbs the pressure of the ground below better, that makes the formation of cracks harder, of course as long as the temperatures remain within the values shown and for not too long periods. No salt-spreading plough is needed.
  • Section 3°: 25-cm. Asphalt (mix), all containing the anti-snow and anti-ice programme. It is divided in three types of asphalt (mix): 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant.


    3-A | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm.
    The whole asphalt (mix) contains the anti-ice and anti-snow programme for a total thickness of 25 cm. It is divided in three types of granulation with 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant.

    3-B | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm., with the side part of the ground (without asphalt (mix)) covered by 7/10 cm. of snow.
    The whole asphalt (mix) contains the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm. It is divided in three types of granulation with 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant. In case of a snowfall of 7/10 cm., the snow remains only on the side part of ground, whereas the water remains on the asphalt (mix). Of course, no intervention of a snowplough is necessary, just that of a salt-spreading plough.

    3-C | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm., with the side part of the ground (without asphalt (mix)) covered by 30 cm. of snow.
    The whole asphalt (mix) contains the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm. It is divided in three types of granulation with 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant.
    In case of a snowfall of 30 cm., the show remains for that measure only on the side part of ground, whereas an amount of about 15/20 cm. remains on the asphalt (mix), it will tend to melt even if temperatures always remain under 0°c. It is a situation that may require the intervention of a snowplough, but not of a salt-spreading plough. Besides, after the snowplough blade passes, the asphalt (mix) remains always clean, because any snow residues melt quickly, even under temperatures of several degrees below 0°.

    3-D | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm., with the indications of the underground pressures in case of frost.
    The whole asphalt (mix) contains the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm. It is divided in three types of granulation with 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant. In case of heavy frost (-12°/-15° C. ) over a long time, the asphalt (mix) surface does not break, because any infiltrated water does not freeze, and this goes for the whole 25-cm. thickness of the asphalt (mix). Besides, it does not even freeze for the ground below at least for another 15/25 cm. in the first two years, and for 30/50 cm. in the following years.
    Such a condition also prevents a formation of cracks on the surface because of any thrust from the ground (lower than the one that cannot freeze) that, always because of low temperatures and the presence of dampness and water, it could bring about. The thrusts caused by swelling are largely dampened by the ground under the asphalt (mix) that does not freeze, therefore it remains free to absorb pressure. Besides, the whole 25-cm. thickness of the asphalt (mix) does not undergo a crystallization of low temperatures, it remains elastic and can better withstand any pressure residues upwards. No salt-spreading plough is needed.
  • Section 4°: 25-cm. asphalt (mix) as in section 3, plus a base divided in two parts of 15 cm. in total, all containing the anti-snow and anti-ice programme. It is divided in five types of asphalt (mix): 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant, as well as 7 cm. of base with 40 mm. of crushed stone and another 8 cm. of base, also with 40 mm. of crushed stone, but with higher percentages than in the upper 7 cm.


    4-A | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm. + 15 cm. of base.
    40-cm. asphalt (mix), all containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme. It is divided in four types of granulation: 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant, in addition to 15 cm. of base with 40 mm. of crushed stone.
    It is good for the base to be divided in two parts, the first one of that, for about 8 cm., with a higher percentage compared to the normal protocols, of 40-mm. crushed stone, whereas the second one, of about 7 cm., will have the percentages of thick crushed stone as normally used.

    4-B | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm. + 15 cm. of base, with 25/30 cm. of snow only on the side ground.
    40-cm. asphalt (mix), all containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme It is divided in four types of granulation: 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant, in addition to 15 cm. of base with 40 mm. of crushed stone.
    It is good for the base to be divided in two parts, the first one of that, for about 8 cm., with a higher percentage as usual, of 40-mm. crushed stone, whereas the second one, of about 7 cm., will have the percentages of thick crushed stone as normally used.
    In case of a snowfall of 25/30 cm., the snow remains on the side ground, whereas the asphalt (mix) remains free. No intervention of snowploughs or salt-spreading ploughs is needed.

    4-C | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm. + 15 cm. of base, with 60 cm. snow.
    40-cm. asphalt (mix), all containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme. It is divided in four types of granulation: 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant, in addition to 15 cm. of base with 40 mm. of crushed stone.
    It is good for the base to be divided in two parts, the first one of that, for about 8 cm., with a higher percentage as usual, of 40-mm. crushed stone, whereas the second one, of about 7 cm., will have the percentages of thick crushed stone as normally used.
    In case of a snowfall of 60 cm., that amount of snow remains on the side ground, whereas a thickness of 20/30 cm. remains on the asphalt (mix), this will tend to melt even if temperatures remain under 0°c. The intervention of snowploughs may be necessary, but not that of salt-spreading ploughs; in addition, as soon as the snow is removed, the asphalt (mix) remains clean, since any residues will tend to melt.

    4-D | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm. + 15 cm. of base, with 50 cm. snow, that, once 5 years have elapsed since the laying, will remain only on the ground beside the asphalt (mix).
    40-cm. asphalt (mix), all containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme. It is divided in four types of granulation: 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant, in addition to 15 cm. of base with 40 mm. of crushed stone.
    It is good for the base to be divided in two parts, the first one of that, for about 8 cm., with a higher percentage compared to the normal protocols, of 40-mm. crushed stone, whereas the second one, of about 7 cm., will have the percentages of thick crushed stone as normally used.
    When 5/7 years or more since the laying of the asphalt (mix) elapse, in case of a snowfall of 50 cm., that amount of snow remains on the side ground, whereas the asphalt (mix) remains clean. No intervention of snowploughs is needed, and of salt-spreading ploughs as well.

    4-E | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total amount of 25 cm. + 15 cm. of base, in case of frost –5°/-12° c.
    40-cm. asphalt (mix), all containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme. It is divided in four types of granulation: 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant, in addition to 15 cm. of base with 40 mm. of crushed stone.
    It is good for the base to be divided in two parts, the first one of that, for about 8 cm., with a higher percentage compared to the normal protocols, of 40-mm. crushed stone, whereas the second one, of about 7 cm., will have the percentages of thick crushed stone as normally used.
    In case of frost –5°/-12° c., the asphalt (mix) (for 40 cm) is not subject to it. Therefore, it does not break even if impregnated with water. It remains elastic and better bears the mechanic stress of both traffic and any thrust from below caused by ground swelling because of frost.
    Such swellings can happen only under 70/80 cm. from the surface. Since the 40 cm. of asphalt (mix) do not freeze, the ground under the asphalt (mix) for further 30/40 cm. also does not freeze, either.
    Therefore, there will be about 30/40 cm. of ground that dampens any thrust from below caused by frost-induced swelling. Neither potholes nor cracks form, then it is not necessary to spread anysalt.

    4-F | Representation in vertical section of the asphalt (mix) containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme, for a total thickness of 25 cm. + 15 cm. of base, in case of frost –5°/-16° c., after at least 5 years since the laying of the asphalt (mix).
    40-cm. asphalt (mix), all containing the anti-ice and anti-snow programme. It is divided in four types of granulation: 5 cm. of wear carpet, 8 cm. of binder, and 12 cm. of tout-venant, in addition to 15 cm. of base with 40 mm. of crushed stone.
    It is good for the base to be divided in two parts, the first one of that, for about 8 cm., with a higher percentage compared to the normal protocols, of 40-mm. crushed stone, whereas the second one, of about 7 cm., will have the percentages of thick crushed stone as normally used.
    After at least five, or seven years since the laying of the asphalt (mix), in case of frost –5°/-16° c., the asphalt (mix) (for 40 cm.) is not subject to frost. Therefore, it does not break even if impregnated with water.
    It remains elastic and better bears the mechanic stresses both of traffic and any thrust from below brought about by the swelling of the ground because of frost.
    Such swellings can happen only under 100/130 cm. from the surface. The 40 cm. of asphalt (mix) actually do not freeze, as well as the ground under the asphalt (mix) for further 60/90 cm does not freeze, either.
    Therefore, there will be about 60/90 cm. of ground that dampens any thrust from below caused by frost-induced swelling. Neither potholes nor cracks should form at all, and of course, it is not necessary to spread salt.